Antibodies – Immunity Ep 4

Antibodies are very important proteins in the immune response. We've already mentioned them a lot in the last few articles but today we will take a detailed look at their structure and function, and how they can be used in medical applications. Antibody structure Antibodies are proteins with a quaternary structure. They have two longer... Continue Reading →

Coenzymes and Cofactors – Enzymes Ep 4

So far in this series we have looked at how enzymes work, what can affect the rate at which they work, and how their action can be inhibited. Today we are looking at coenzymes and cofactors: non-proteins that are needed in order for some enzymes to be able to catalyse their reaction. Coenzymes Coenzymes are... Continue Reading →

Enzyme Inhibition – Enzymes Ep 3

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and prevents it from catalysing a reaction. In this article we will look at two types of enzyme inhibition - competitive and non-competitive inhibition. Although enzyme inhibitors can sometimes have devastating consequences, some of them are actually quite important. We will look at some... Continue Reading →

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity – Enzymes Ep 2

In the last article we looked at how enzymes work as biological catalysts. However, there are various factors affecting enzyme activity, and consequently the rate of the reactions they catalyse. Today we will look at the four main factors that influence the rate of enzyme activity. Substrate concentration This one makes quite good sense. If... Continue Reading →

Enzyme Basics – Enzymes Ep 1

You know when you look at a word too much and it starts to look weird? That will definitely happen with the word 'enzyme' as we move through this topic. Today we're going to take a look at the basics of what enzymes are and how they act. What are enzymes? Perhaps the first phrase... Continue Reading →

Translation and RNAi – Genes to Proteins Ep 3

In the last article, we ended transcription with a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) ready to leave the nucleus and travel to the ribosomes. The ribosomes are where translation happens - the next step in protein synthesis. Translation Translation begins with the mRNA strand settling between the two subunits of the ribosome. Each three base... Continue Reading →

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